Analysis of the literary scheme of the letters to Timothy suggests that graphe, as it is employed in each letter, may legitimately be understood to include some of the apostolic writings that now appear in the New Testament. In affirming the Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles, Swinson argues that a form of the Gospel of Luke stands as the source of the second referent of graphe in 1 Tim 5:18. Second, Swinson contends that pasa graphe in 2 Tim 3:16 includes the apostolic writings extant in Paul's day, specifically Luke's Gospel and some of Paul's own writings. These parallel lines of analysis demonstrate that Paul ascribes to his own writings and to those of his coworkers an authoritative standing equal to that of the sacred writings (ta hiera grammata) found in the Old Testament. While many questions surrounding biblical authority and the biblical canon remain, Paul's use of graphe in 1 and 2 Timothy nevertheless advances a high view of both Old Testament and New Testament Scripture. ""This study takes a fresh, critical, and comprehensive look at evidence and arguments often either overlooked or facilely dismissed. The happy result is a better factual foundation for consideration of vital historical questions regarding Christian origins and the role that Scripture played from the church's inception. Especially welcome are [Swinson's] careful exegesis, philological rigor, and charitable candor in interaction with other contemporary scholarship."" --Robert W. Yarbrough, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, MO ""Much academic writing focuses on small details and minor nuances. Unfortunately, the significance of these studies often remains small and minor as well. In the case of Swinson's work, my hope is that many will come to discover the richness of his discoveries--while narrowly focused, they are narrow in the same way a laser is: his work is keen, insightful, precise."" --Ted Rivera, Liberty University Online, Lynchburg, VA L. Timothy Swinson is an Assistant Professor and Instructional Mentor in the School of Religion at Liberty University.